History: 15 year old boy with headache and arm numbness. This is a case of a Chiari 1 malformation, which is is defined as caudal extension of the cerebellar tonsils 5 mm below the foramen magnum. Syringomyelia (syrinx) is seen in one-half of the patients, and it is not associated with other neurulation malformations. There are three main types … Continue reading
History: 10 year old female with neck pain. This is an example of cervical ribs, which are seen in less than 1% of the population. Cervical ribs are on the differential diagnosis for neck pain, and can be a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. The thoracic outlet contains multiple spaces including the subcoracoid tunnel, costoclavicular … Continue reading
History: 50 year old male with cough. Scoliosis is a general term to describe any lateral curvature of the spine. There are many different etiologies to scoliosis including idiopathic, congenital, degenerative, Scheuermann disease, tumor, trauma, and compensatory due to limb length discrepancy, for example. The Method of Cobb is the standard way of measuring scoliosis. … Continue reading
History: 50 year old male with chronic lower back pain. This is an anterior compression fracture of the L1 vertebral body. Typically in this location these fractures are due to trauma with an axial loading force on the vertebral body. In fact, 50-65% of traumatic spine compression fractures occur between T12 and L2, the junction … Continue reading
History: 30 year old female with a history of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. This is the appearance of basilar invagination, of which the differential includes Paget Disease, Osteomalacia, fibrous dysplasia, achondroplasia, rickets, cleidocranial dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta. The diagnosis in this case was osteogenesis imperfecta, which also can cause hearing loss.