shortness of breath

This tag is associated with 9 posts

Bronchitis – The B6 Bronchus

History: 65 year old male with productive cough. This is a case of bronchitis. The bronchi seen on end near the hila are the B6 bronchi, which supply the superior segment of the lower lobes bilaterally. The B6 bronchi in the radiograph above are seen well because they are oriented perpindicular to the x-ray beam, … Continue reading


History: 60 year old male with fever, cough, and shortness of breath.  This is complete collapse of the lateral basal segment of the left lower lobe, which can also be describe as partial atelectasis of the left lower lobe. Lobar collapse occurs when an entire lobe of the lung is not aerated. Obscuration of the … Continue reading

Kerley B Lines

History: 60 year old male with lower extremity edema and shortness of breath.  This is an excellent example of Kerley B lines. These lines are created by interlobular septal thickening, typically created by fluid collecting within the pulmonary interstitium. Classically Kerley B lines are seen with cardiogenic pulmonary edema, where left ventricular failure causes increased … Continue reading

Pulmonary Hamartoma – Popcorn Calcification

History: 50 year old male with shortness of breath.  This pattern of calcification is commonly referred to as “popcorn” calcification, and is typically seen with hamartomas of the lung. Hamartomas are the most common benign neoplasm in the lung, and comprise about 8% of all lung neoplasms. They are typically calcified, well circumscribed, and less … Continue reading

Paraseptal Emphysema

History: 55 year old male with history of hypertension and diabetes presents with shortness of breath.  This is the typical appearance of paraseptal emphysema, which is caused by destruction of alveolar ducts and alveoli in the periphery of the secondary pulmonary lobules. When these lucencies become larger than 10 mm, they are classified as bullae. … Continue reading

Pulmonary Metastatic Disease

History: 65 year old male with a history of “abdominal” malignancy presents with chest pain and shortness of breath. This is a case of metastatic disease to the lungs (pulmonary metastatic disease). Can you determine the likely primary cancer? Take a look at the film again. See the surgical clips in the abdomen. The patient … Continue reading

Asbestos Related Pleural Disease – Pleural Plaques and The Holly Leaf Sign

History: 60 year old male with shortness of breath.  Pleural plaques can be seen in numerous disease entities, and are most commonly seen in cases of prior asbestos exposure, as in this case. Other possibilities include prior empyema, hemothorax, or pleural effusion. Plaques can be mimicked by extrapleural fat. Pleural malignancies are an additional consideration, … Continue reading

Lung Bullae – Bullous emphysema.

History: 50 year old male with chest pain.  A bulla is a thin-walled hole in the lung that must be larger than 10 mm. The hole contains no parenchyma, and there is a high contrast between the cavity and normal lung parenchyma. Emphysema is classified typically as either paraseptal or centrilobular (although, another type is … Continue reading

Unilateral Pleural Effusion – Differential Diagnosis

History: 70 year old male with shortness of breath and cough.  The differential diagnosis for unilateral pleural effusion includes parapneumonic effusion, neoplasms such as mesothelioma, primary lung cancer, pleural metastases, lymphoma, other entities such as cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and trauma. This patient had a parapneumonic effusion.