This tag is associated with 14 posts

Suprasellar Mass – Rathke Cleft Cyst

History: 20 year old female with headache and blurry vision This is a case of a Rathke cleft cyst, which is a benign suprasellar mass. Rathke’s pouch is a depression in the roof of the developing mouth in front of the buccopharyngeal membrane. It gives rise to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), a part of the endocrine system. Rathke’s pouch normally closes early … Continue reading

Contrast Enhancing Mediastinal Mass Mnemonic – CAPT CAPT

This mnemonic is commonly used to recall the differential diagnosis for contrast enhancing mediastinal masses: CAPT CAPT C – Carcinoid tumor A – Aneurysm P – Paraganglioma T – Thyroid C – Castleman A – Anuerysm (I know, its mentioned twice because you definitely don’t want to miss this one) P – Parathyroid T – … Continue reading

Solitary Lung Mass Mnemonic – CASH PLEASE

This mnemonic has been commonly used to recall the differential diagnosis for a solitary lung mass: CASH PLEASe C – Cancer A – Abscess S – Solitary Metastasis H – Hamartoma P – Pseudotumor L – Lymphoma E – Echinococcus A – Actinomyces S – Sequestration See a case discussion of solitary lung mass here.

Cavitating Lung Mass Mnemonic – CAVITY

This mnemonic has been used commonly to aid in recalling the differential diagnosis of a cavitating lung mass (CAVITY): C – cancer (primary bronchogenic carcinoma or pulmonary metastases) A – autoimmune (rheumatoid lung disease and Wegener’s granulomatosis) V – vascular (pulmonary emboli including septic emboli) I – infection (pulmonary abscess) T – trauma (pneumatocele) Y … Continue reading

Lytic Bone Lesion Mnemonic – FEGNOMASHIC

This is a commonly used mnemonic to recall the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions: F – fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect E – enchondroma (of the tibia here or of a phalanx here), eosinophilic granuloma G – giant cell tumor N – non-ossifying fibroma O – osteoblastoma M – metastases, myeloma A – aneurysmal … Continue reading

Ring Enhancing Intracranial Mass Mnemonic – MAGIC DR

This is a commonly used mnemonic to recall the differential diagnosis for ring enhancing intracranial masses: M – Metastases A – Abscess G – Glioblastoma Multiforme I – Infarct (subacute) C – Contusion D – Demyelinating disease (such as tumefactive multiple sclerosis) R – Radiation Necrosis and Resolving hematoma

Solution to Unknown Case # 11 – Differential Diagnosis of a Cystic Pediatric Neck Mass

History: 5 year old male with a midline neck mass.  This is the appearance of a lymphatic malformation, which use to be termed “cystic hygroma.” A lymphatic malformation is a congenital malformation of lymph channels which collect into embryonic lymphatic sacs. They can virtually be found in any head and neck location, and are characteristically … Continue reading

Lung Mass – Differential Diagnosis

History: 60 year old male with cough.  A lung mass is a focal opacity that measures greater than 3 cm. If it measures less than 3 cm and is the only lesion, it is classified as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Read this post for the differential diagnosis for a solitary pulmonary nodule. The differential diagnosis … Continue reading


History: 35 year old female with pelvic pain.  Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial cells (the cells that line the inside of the uterus) are found outside of the uterus within other areas of the body. Patients typically complain of painful menstruation, irregular bleeding, and infertility. When endometrial tissue forms a localized mass, such as … Continue reading

Unilateral Opaque or “White Out” Hemithorax – Differential Diagnosis

History: 60 year old male with shortness of breath. The differntial diagnosis for unilateral opaque hemithorax is broad, and includes large pleural effusion, empyema, hemothorax, complete lung collapse, pneumonectomy, community acquired pneumonia, bronchogenic carcinoma, pleural masses such as mesothelioma, and finally pulmonary agenesis. This patient had complete collapse of the left lung secondary to a … Continue reading