This tag is associated with 30 posts

Solution to Unknown Case # 4 – Pancreatic Psuedocyst

History: Adolescent male with abdominal swelling. This is a pancreatic pseudocyst. A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid collection which is surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Pancreatic pseudocysts usually contain pancreatic enzymes, tissue, debris, and sometimes blood. The differential diagnosis for this MRI appearance includes a pancreatic pseudocyst, mucinous cystic pancreatic tumor, pancreatic serous cystadenoma, and … Continue reading

Unknown Case # 4 – Pediatric Abdominal MRI

History: Adolescent male with abdominal swelling. What is your diagnosis for this pediatric patient with abdominal swelling? What is your differential diagnosis for this MRI of the abdomen? For the solution, click here.

Pyloric Stenosis – Ultrasound

History: 3 week old baby boy with vomiting.  This is a classic case of pyloric stenosis, which is defined as idiopathic hypertrophy of the muscle that makes up the sphincter between the stomach and the first part of the duodenum, called the pylorus. Diagnostic features of pyloric stenosis on ultrasound includes a single wall thickness … Continue reading

Gallbladder Wall Thickening – Differential Diagnosis

History: 55 year old male with right upper quadrant pain.  The normal gallbladder wall should measure 3 mm or less on ultrasound imaging. The differential diagnosis for diffuse gallbladder wall thickening includes cholecystitis, hepatitis, volume overload states such as heart failure, liver failure, and renal failure, hypoproteinemia, portal hypertension, and more rare causes such as … Continue reading


History: 50 year old female with abdominal swelling and pain.  This is the appearance of splenomegaly on CT. The normal spleen measures less than 13 cm in length. The differential diagnosis for splenomegaly is usually divided into blood flow problems (AKA: hemodynamics) such as congestive heart failure and portal hypertension, hematologic conditions such as polycythemia … Continue reading

Cirrhosis – On Ultrasound

History: 50 year old male with abdominal pain and swelling.  This is the typical appearance of cirrhosis on ultrasound. The best indicator of cirrhosis on ultrasound is a nodular contour to the liver surface, as seen above. Cirrhosis typically occurs in stages. Early on, the liver size may be enlarged. As cirrhosis progresses, the liver … Continue reading

Fatty Liver Disease – Ultrasound

History: 50 year old male with right upper quadrant pain.  This is the typical appearance of fatty liver disease, also called hepatic steatosis, on ultrasound. The three main findings of fatty liver disease on ultrasound are 1) increased echogenicity as compared to the adjacent kidney (which must be measured at the same depth), 2) decreased acoustic … Continue reading


History: 40 year old female with right upper quadrant pain.  This constellation of findings gives the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, which is the presence of a stone within the biliary ductal system. A classic ultrasound finding with calcified stones is posterior acoustic shadowing, however, the appearance of gallstones is based upon the location, size, and composition. … Continue reading

Gallbladder Adenomyomatosis

History: 50 year old female with abdominal pain with an incidental finding. Adenomyomatosis is focal gallbladder wall thickening secondary to hyperplastic smooth muscle proliferation and exaggeration of the Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. It is usually asymptomatic, incidental, and of little clinical importance. Cholecystectomy can be performed if patients are symptomatic.  The differential diagnosis includes adenomatous polyp, and … Continue reading

Bochdalek Hernia

History: 50 year old male with incidental finding on chest CT. This is a diaphgragmatic hernia. There are multiple types of diaphragmatic hernias. Two of which have eponyms assigned to them are Bochdalek hernias and Morgagni hernias, of which can be either congenital or adult. A Bochdalek hernia occurs at the posterior pleuroperitoneal hiatus, or … Continue reading