This tag is associated with 8 posts

Chiari 1 Malformation

History: 15 year old boy with headache and arm numbness. This is a case of a Chiari 1 malformation, which is is defined as caudal extension of the cerebellar tonsils 5 mm below the foramen magnum. Syringomyelia (syrinx) is seen in one-half of the patients, and it is not associated with other neurulation malformations. There are three main types … Continue reading

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

History: 4 day old baby with apnea  The germinal matrix is the site of proliferating neuronal and glial precursors in the developing brain, which is located above the caudate nucleus in the floor of the lateral ventricle and caudothalamic groove. The germinal matrix contains a rich network of fragile thin-walled blood vessels. Hence the microcirculation in … Continue reading

The Ventricular System of the Brain

The ventricular system is a set of four structures, the ventricles, containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. It is continuous with the central canal of spinal cord. The ventricle lining consists of an epithelium-like membrane called ependyma. The ventricles are interconnected, allowing the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. CSF is produced by the ependymal cells … Continue reading

Suprasellar Mass – Rathke Cleft Cyst

History: 20 year old female with headache and blurry vision This is a case of a Rathke cleft cyst, which is a benign suprasellar mass. Rathke’s pouch is a depression in the roof of the developing mouth in front of the buccopharyngeal membrane. It gives rise to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), a part of the endocrine system. Rathke’s pouch normally closes early … Continue reading

Non-Traumatic Intracranial (Intracerebral) Hemorrhage – Differential Diagnosis

History: 28 year old patient with end stage renal disease and hypertension presents with a seizure.  This young patient had multiple areas of spontaneous, or primary intracranial hemorrhage with an absence of trauma. As indicated in the figure, intracranial (or intracerebral) hemorrhage can occur in different spaces in the head itself, including the subarachnoid space (green … Continue reading

Meningioma – On MRI

History: 60 year old female with headaches and dizziness.  This is a case of a meningioma with all of the classic MRI findings, except for location. Meningiomas arise from the arachnoid cap cells of the meninges. They are supratentorial in 90% of the time, which is why this case isn’t entirely a classical. Meningiomas are benign … Continue reading

Glioblastoma Multiforme – Ring Enhancing Lesion Differential Diagnosis

History: 55 year old male with new onset seizures. This case is a nice example of a ring enhancing mass in the brain. The typical mnemonic used for a solitary ring enhancing mass in the brain is MAGIC-DR which stands for Metastases, Abscess, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Infarct, Contusion, Demyelinating disease (tumefactive multiple sclerosis), and Radiation Necrosis … Continue reading

Fetal Origin of the Posterior Cerebral Artery – My Brain MRI

History: Radiology resident being scanned for a physics lesson has an incidental finding.  This is my brain MRI! The finding is called a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery, and it occurs when the embryonic form of the posterior cerebral artery fails to regress. It is a normal variant that occurs on either side … Continue reading