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Pediatrics

This category contains 74 posts

Solution to Unknown Case #20 – Epididymo-orchitis

History: 5 year old boy with left scrotal pain.  This is a case of epididymitis-orchitis, which is also referred to as epididymoorchitis or acute scrotum. Epididymoorchitis is an infection of the testicle and epididymis. Orchitis alone is much less common. Ultrasound is the gold standard of diagnosis, and it classically appears as hypoechoic enlargement of the … Continue reading

Unknown Case #20 – Pediatric Scrotal Ultrasound

History: 5 year old boy with left scrotal pain.  What is your differential diagnosis for these findings in this 5 year old boy with left scrotal pain? Comment and share below!

Solution to Unknown Case #19 – Gibbus Deformity Differential Diagnosis

History: Child with back pain.  This is the appearance of a Gibbus Deformity. A Gibbus Deformity is a short segment thoracolumbar kyphosis that results in sharp angulation as seen in the image above. The differential diagnosis for a Gibbus deformity is usually divided into congenital and acquired causes, as detailed below: Congenital Causes of Gibbus … Continue reading

Unknown Case # 19 – Pediatric Lumbar Spine Radiographs

History: Child with back pain.  What is the name for this finding? What is your differential diagnosis? Comment and share below!

Solution to Unknown Case #18 – Varicocele and Aliasing in Ultrasound

History: 14 year old boy with lump in scrotum. This is a case of a varicocele. A varicocele is dilation of the pampiniform plexus of veins due to retrograde flow in the internal spermatic vein. It is diagnosed most frequently by ultrasound criteria of vessels dilated to 2-3 mm or more. Varicoceles are seen about … Continue reading

Solution to Unknown Case #17 – Short 4th and 5th Metacarpals Differential Diagnosis

History: 15 year old boy with hand pain.  This is a case of short 4th and 5th metacarpals. Shortened 4th and 5th metacarpals is diagnosed by the metacarpal sign, which involves drawing a line through the heads of the 4th and 5th metacarpals. If the line intersects the head of the third metacarpal, then it … Continue reading

Elbow Ossification Centers Mnemonic – CRITOE

This is a commonly used mnemonic to recall the elbow ossification centers (CRITOE 1/3/5/7/9/11): Capitellum – 1 year Radial head – 3 years Internal (medial) epicondyle – 5 years Trochlea – 7 years Olecranon – 9 years External (Lateral) epicondyle – 11 years NOTE: always remember when using this mnemonic that the order of appearance … Continue reading

Periosteal Reaction in Children Mnemonic – PERIOSTEAL SOCKS

This is a commonly used mnemonic to recall the differential diagnosis for periosteal reactions in children: P – physiologic, prostaglandin therapy E – eosinophilic granuloma R – rickets I – infantile cortical hyperostosis O – osteomyelitis S – scurvy T – trauma E – Ewing Sarcoma A – hypervitaminosis A L – leukemia S – … Continue reading

Unknown Case #18 – Pediatric Scrotal Ultrasound

History: 14 year old boy with lump in scrotum.  What is your diagnosis for this pediatric patient with a lump in his left scrotum? Comment and share below!

Unknown Case # 17 – Pediatric Hand Radiograph

History: 15 year old boy with hand pain.  What is your differential diagnosis for this appearance? Comment and share below!

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