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Pediatrics

This category contains 74 posts

Solution to Unknown Case #36 – Osteoid Osteoma

History: adolescent with leg pain at night.  This is a classic case of an osteoid osteoma. An osteoid osteoma is a benign osteoid producing bone tumor. They are radiolucent on radiographs and classically have tumor nidus surrounded by reactive sclerosis on radiographs and edema on MRI. Osteoid osteomas represent approximately 10-15% of benign bone tumors … Continue reading

Unknown Case #36 – Child with leg pain

History: Adolescent with leg pain at night.  What is your diagnosis for this adolescent with leg pain at night? Comment and share below!

Humerus Shaft Fracture – Holstein Lewis Fracture

History: Child with left arm pain.  This is a left humeral diaphysis or humerus shaft fracture. In fractures of the humerus shaft it is imperative to assess for radial nerve injury. The radial nerve courses along the spiral groove of the humerus and can be damaged with humeral shaft fractures. This humeral shaft fracture has … Continue reading

Pediatric Femur Fracture

History: 2 year old child refusing to bear weight. This is a fracture of the right femoral diaphysis in a two year old patient. These usually heal very well, but it is important to monitor the child for blood loss and compartment syndrome because of the possibility of adjacent vascular injury to the femoral artery.

Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion – Battery

History: Child with reported swallowed foreign body.  This is a case of a swallowed battery, which is an urgent finding that needs to be reported immediately to the referring clinician for endoscopic removal. Read about distinguishing batteries from other similar appearing foreign bodies such as coins here. Below is a penny in the esophagus.

Solution to Unknown Case #23 – Empyema (loculated pleural effusion)

History: Child with cough.  This is the appearance of an empyema on a lateral decubitus chest radiograph. Pleural effusions are classified as either transudative (simple fluid) or exudative (complex fluid containing pus, blood, or protein). On ultrasound, transudative pleural effusions are anechoic and simple appearing, whereas exudative pleural effusions are complex appearing with echogenic debris and … Continue reading

Unknown Case #23 – Pediatric Lateral Decubitus Chest Radiograph

History: Child with cough.  What is your diagnosis? Comment and share below!

Solution to Unknown Case #22 – Vesicoureteral Reflux with Duplicated Collecting System

History: Child with multiple urinary tract infections.  This is a case of vesicoureteral reflux with a completely duplicated right collecting system. Vesicoureteral reflux is graded as follows: 1. Grade 1 – reflux into a normal caliber ureter only 2. Grade 2 – reflux into the ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces with out dilatation 3. Grade … Continue reading

Unknown Case #22 – Retrograde Voiding Cystourethrogram

History: child with history of urinary tract infections.  What is your diagnosis for this child with a history of multiple urinary tract infections? Comment and share below!

Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Fracture

History: 16 year old female with knee pain.  This is the appearance of an avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle, which occurs when the patellar tendon pulls a piece of bone off of the tibia. This is an acute injury where the apophyseal ossification center becomes displaced, as opposed to chronic repetitive stress injuries at … Continue reading