This category contains 106 posts

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

History: infant who died shortly after birth Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, is a congenital bone disorder characterized by brittle bones that are prone to fracture. People with OI are born with defective connective tissue, or without the ability to make it, usually because of a deficiency of type I collagen. On … Continue reading

Causes of Avascular Necrosis (AVN) Mnemonic

There are numerous causes of avascular necrosis (AVN), which is at its most basic definition when blood flow to a bone is interrupted or reduced. Numerous mnemonics have been proposed to remember the many causes of AVN. My favorite is probably GIVE INFARCTS:     GIVE INFARCTS ·       G- Gaucher disease ·       I- Idiopathic- Legg-Calve Perthes ·       … Continue reading

Thoracic Spine Burst Fracture

History: hit by car while riding bike A burst fracture is a type of traumatic spinal injury in which a vertebra breaks from a high-energy axial load (e.g., car accidents or falls from a great height or high speed, and some kinds of seizures), with shards of vertebra penetrating surrounding tissues and sometimes the spinal … Continue reading

Lower Back Pain and Disc Herniation

Lower back pain (also called “lumbago”) is one of the most common medical problems in the United States, affecting up to 40% of all people at some point in their lives. According to the National Institutes of Health, Americans spend at least $50 billion each year on low back pain, and it is the most common … Continue reading

Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disorder

History: Not moving left leg, flexion contracture at the knee. Other past medical history includes hyperbilirubinemia at birth, autoimmune hepatitis, sensorineural hearing loss and global developmental delay. Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) was first described by Prier and Griscelli in 1987 and has also been referred to as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). It is a rare genetic disorder on the spectrum of cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). NOMID is … Continue reading

Skull Metastases

History: Middle aged man with headache.  This is a case of lung cancer metastases to the skull. Lung cancer, like breast cancer, can produce both lytic and sclerotic bone metastases. Read about other cancers and the bone metastases they produce. Thank you to Dra. Pilar Rodríguez Pérez from Spain for submitting this case. See this patient’s … Continue reading

Ulnar Dislocation of the Third Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

History: 40 year old male with finger pain.    This is a case of a dislocated third proximal interphalangeal joint. See another case of a dislocated interphalangeal joint here.

Osteochondral Injury

History: adult male with ankle pain.  This is the appearance of osteochondral injuries on plain radiography and MRI. The term osteochondral lesion has been broadly applied to include abnormalities of the bone and cartilage that are not acute. In the ankle, osteochondral injuries are most common at the middle third of the lateral talar dome … Continue reading

Pes Planus

History: 35 year old male with foot pain.  This is the appearance of pes planus, or flatfoot, which occurs in up to 20% of adults with no other abnormalities. There are many contributors to pes planus deformity, including hindfoot valgus shown by increased talocalcaneal angle to greater than 45 degrees, midfoot sag or lisfranc ligament … Continue reading

Diabetic Foot Complications

History: 50 year old male with uncontrolled diabetes.  This is a common appearance in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and osteomyelitis of the foot. There are many muskuloskeletal complications of diabetes, most of which predominantly affect the feet. Most commonly is ulceration, cellulitis or abscess formation. Diabetic patient’s frequently develop peripheral neuropathy and therefore have difficulty … Continue reading