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Causes of Avascular Necrosis (AVN) Mnemonic

There are numerous causes of avascular necrosis (AVN), which is at its most basic definition when blood flow to a bone is interrupted or reduced. Numerous mnemonics have been proposed to remember the many causes of AVN. My favorite is probably GIVE INFARCTS:     GIVE INFARCTS ·       G- Gaucher disease ·       I- Idiopathic- Legg-Calve Perthes ·       … Continue reading

Fatty Liver Disease – Foie Gras

History: 50 year old male with right upper quadrant pain Fatty liver disease is generally divided into two main categories, alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). More than 15 million people in the U.S. abuse or overuse alcohol. Almost all of them — 90%-100% — develop fatty livers. Fatty liver can occur after … Continue reading

Neutropenic Colitis (Typhlitis)

History: 50 year old female with right lower quadrant pain. Typhlitis is a necrotizing process of the cecum, occurring in neutropenic patients who are usually receiving combined chemotherapy. The atonic cecum is affected because of its poor arterial perfusion, the presence of colonic bacteria, and the milieu of immunosuppression. Other terms that have been used … Continue reading

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

History: 4 day old baby with apnea  The germinal matrix is the site of proliferating neuronal and glial precursors in the developing brain, which is located above the caudate nucleus in the floor of the lateral ventricle and caudothalamic groove. The germinal matrix contains a rich network of fragile thin-walled blood vessels. Hence the microcirculation in … Continue reading