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Solution to Unknown Case #2 – Bronchogenic Cyst

History: 40 year old male with cough. This is a case of a bronchogenic cyst, which is a congenital lesion thought to arise from abnormal budding of the foregut during development, and it is classified as a foregut duplication cyst along with enteric and neurenteric cysts. Many bronchogenic cysts are asymptomatic and not discovered until … Continue reading

Unknown Case # 2 – Chest CT

History: 40 year old male with cough.  Diagnosis? For the solution, click here.

Lung Mass – Differential Diagnosis

History: 60 year old male with cough.  A lung mass is a focal opacity that measures greater than 3 cm. If it measures less than 3 cm and is the only lesion, it is classified as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Read this post for the differential diagnosis for a solitary pulmonary nodule. The differential diagnosis … Continue reading

Chest Radiograph – Tubes, Lines, and Drains

History: 65 year old male status post coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The upward pointing arrow on the patient’s right labels a Swan-Ganz catheter coursing through the right internal jugular vein and ending in the right pulmonary artery. The downward pointing arrow on the patient’s left labels a mediastinal drain. The leftward pointing arrow over the patient’s … Continue reading

Solution to Unknown Case 1 – Indirect Sign of Deep Vein Thrombosis

History: 50 year old male with lower extremity swelling. This is an indirect sign of a deep vein thrombosis. Normally, flow within the deep venous system is low resistance with variation during inspiration and expiration as central venous pressure changes with the respiratory cycle and cardiac cycle (as is seen in the first image above … Continue reading

Unknown Case 1 – Lower Extremity Doppler Ultrasound

History: 50 year old male with lower extremity swelling Diagnosis? For the solution, click here.

Non-Traumatic Intracranial (Intracerebral) Hemorrhage – Differential Diagnosis

History: 28 year old patient with end stage renal disease and hypertension presents with a seizure.  This young patient had multiple areas of spontaneous, or primary intracranial hemorrhage with an absence of trauma. As indicated in the figure, intracranial (or intracerebral) hemorrhage can occur in different spaces in the head itself, including the subarachnoid space (green … Continue reading

Submandibular Space Abscess

History: 50 year old male with mouth pain and swelling. This is a submandibular space abscess. Head and neck anatomy is some of the most complex anatomy in the human body. The submandibular space is superior the hyoid bone, lateral or superficial to the mylohyoid muscle sling, and deep to the platysma muscle. It is … Continue reading

Restricted Diffusion – Differential Diagnosis

History: 70 year old male with acute right sided hemiplegia.  Many different entities can cause increased signal on diffusion weighted imaging. The differential diagnosis includes acute ischemic stroke, abscess, empyema, epidermoid cyst, lymphoma, intracerebral hematoma, encephalomyelitis, diffuse axonal injury, meningioma, and multiple sclerosis. An excellent article reviewing these entities is found here. The patient from … Continue reading

Periventricular White Matter Hypoattenuation – Differential Diagnosis

History: 80 year old male with headache. This is the appearance of periventricular white matter hypoattenuation on CT. In this patient it is due to normal aging effects on the brain. The appearance of periventricular white matter hypoattenuation on CT is nonspecific and the differential diagnosis includes normal aging brain, arteriolosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated … Continue reading