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Solution to Unknown Case # 4 – Pancreatic Psuedocyst

History: Adolescent male with abdominal swelling. This is a pancreatic pseudocyst. A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid collection which is surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Pancreatic pseudocysts usually contain pancreatic enzymes, tissue, debris, and sometimes blood. The differential diagnosis for this MRI appearance includes a pancreatic pseudocyst, mucinous cystic pancreatic tumor, pancreatic serous cystadenoma, and … Continue reading

Solution to Unknown Case # 3 – Osteosarcoma of the Left Humerus

History: 17 year old male with left shoulder pain.  This is a case of osteosarcoma of the left humerus. Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumor in children and young adults, and is usually seen in patients 10-30 years of age and patients older than 60 years of age, but more commonly in … Continue reading

Unknown Case # 4 – Pediatric Abdominal MRI

History: Adolescent male with abdominal swelling. What is your diagnosis for this pediatric patient with abdominal swelling? What is your differential diagnosis for this MRI of the abdomen? For the solution, click here.

Unknown case # 3 – Pediatric Shoulder MRI

History: 17 year old male with shoulder pain. What is your diagnosis in this pediatric patient with left shoulder pain? What is your differential diagnosis? Comment below! For the solution, click here.

Pyloric Stenosis – Ultrasound

History: 3 week old baby boy with vomiting.  This is a classic case of pyloric stenosis, which is defined as idiopathic hypertrophy of the muscle that makes up the sphincter between the stomach and the first part of the duodenum, called the pylorus. Diagnostic features of pyloric stenosis on ultrasound includes a single wall thickness … Continue reading

Both Bone Forearm Fracture

History: 10 year old male status post fall.  This is the appearance of a both bone forearm fracture in the pediatric patient. The most common mechanism is fall on an outstretched hand, sometimes referred to as FOOSH; however, this mechanism of injury typically causes other types of distal forearm fractures such as a Colles fracture or … Continue reading

Toddler Fracture

History: 16 month old female refusing to bear weight.  This is the appearance of a Toddler fracture. A toddler fracture is a stress type fracture which is typically seen in young children around the age they begin to walk (hence the term “Toddler” fracture). They are nondisplaced spiral tibial shaft fractures. They have been termed … Continue reading

Rickets – Rachitic Rosary and Differential Diagnosis

History: pediatric patient with bowed legs.  This is a classic case of Rickets, which is a metabolic bone disease caused by lack of calcium and phosphate, which is commonly due to vitamin D deficiency. This leads to softening of the bones due to failure to mineralize bone. Causes of rickets in children less than 6 … Continue reading

Bronchiectasis – Differential Diagnosis

History: 65 year old male with shortness of breath.  This is the appearance of bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as abnormal widening or dilatation of the airways. It can be diagnosed by a bronchoarterial ratio (B/A) of greater than 1.5. Other ways to diagnose bronchiectasis include lack of bronchial tapering after airway bifurcations and visualization of … Continue reading

Penetrating Chest Trauma – Knife in Chest

History: 50 year old male with self inflicted chest stab wound. Important findings to look for in the case of penetrating trauma to the chest include pneumothorax, pleural effusion (which indicates hemothorax), widened mediastinum indicating injury to the vascular pedicle, enlarged cardiac silhouette indicating hemopericardium, diaphragmatic injury, and pneumoperitoneum. Surprisingly, this patient did not have … Continue reading